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  • Lopinavir Upregulation of ACLY is common in many cancers

    2024-02-20

    Upregulation of ACLY is common in many cancers (Kuhajda, 2000, Milgraum et al., 1997, Swinnen et al., 2004, Yahagi et al., 2005). This is in part due to the transcriptional activation by SREBP-1 resulting from the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancers (Kim et al., 2010, Nadler et al., 2001, Wang and Dey, 2006). In this study, we report a mechanism of ACLY regulation at the posttranscriptional level. We propose that acetylation modulated by glucose status plays a crucial role in coordinating the intracellular level of ACLY, hence fatty Lopinavir synthesis, and glucose availability. When glucose is sufficient, lipogenesis is enhanced. This can be achieved, at least in part, by the glucose-induced stabilization of ACLY. High glucose increases ACLY acetylation, which inhibits its ubiquitylation and degradation, leading to the accumulation of ACLY and enhanced lipogenesis. In contrast, when glucose is limited, ACLY is not acetylated and thus can be ubiquitylated, leading to ACLY degradation and reduced lipogenesis. Moreover, our data indicate that acetylation and ubiquitylation in ACLY may compete with each other by targeting the same lysine residues at K540, K546, and K554. Consistently, previous proteomic analyses have identified K546 in ACLY as a ubiquitylation site (Wagner et al., 2011). Similar models of different modifications on the same lysine residues have been reported in the regulation of other proteins (Grönroos et al., 2002, Li et al., 2002, Li et al., 2012). We propose that acetylation and ubiquitylation have opposing effects in the regulation of ACLY by competitively modifying the same lysine residues. The acetylation-mimetic 3KQ and the acetylation-deficient 3KR mutants behaved indistinguishably in most biochemical and functional assays, mainly due to the fact that these mutations disrupt lysine ubiquitylation that primarily occurs on these three residues. In rapidly proliferating cancer cells, a high level of de novo lipogenesis provides precursors for membrane biogenesis. However, this is a process that demands a high level of energy (Rysman et al., 2010). Many studies have shown that de novo lipid synthesis is dramatically increased in cancer cells (Medes et al., 1953, Menendez and Lupu, 2007, Ookhtens et al., 1984, Sabine et al., 1967). It has been reported that ACLY inhibition with chemical inhibitors or RNAi can suppress tumor cell proliferation (Bauer et al., 2005, Hatzivassiliou et al., 2005). Our studies show that stabilization of ACLY by the mutation at K540, K546, and K554 (3KR) significantly enhances lipogenesis, increases cell proliferation, and promotes in vivo tumor growth. These results support a critical role for ACLY acetylation in the coordination of glucose availability and de novo lipid synthesis and the regulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis. They also suggest that the possibility of drugs inhibiting the ACLY acetylation may merit exploration as a therapeutic agent for cancer. Notably, ACLY is increased in lung cancer tissues compared to adjacent tissues. Consistently, ACLY acetylation at 3K is also significantly increased in lung cancer tissues. These observations not only confirm ACLY acetylation in vivo, but also suggest that ACLY 3K acetylation may play a role in lung cancer development. Our study reveals a mechanism of ACLY regulation in response to glucose signals.
    Experimental Procedures
    Acknowledgments
    Introduction The homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum) is a prominent pathogen that infects major cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. Infection leads to a loss in yield and the accumulation of mycotoxins that are harmful to livestock and humans (Desjardins, 2006). For reproduction, the fungus produces sexual spores (ascospores) and asexual spores (conidia). Although both types of spores contribute to the propagation of disease, ascospores are known to be the primary inoculum for the epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops (Sutton, 1982, Trail and Common, 2000).